Your organization is grieving—here’s how you can help

Responsive leaders need to bring the mourning process forward in their organizational culture—and in their own leadership approach.

The Jeeranont

Look around and you’ll see grief everywhere—that stew of loss, longing, and other emotions we experience when something we value and feel connection to is gone. During the COVID-19 pandemic, everyone has suffered losses—for some, it’s the loss of loved ones; for others, the loss of routines and the familiar, the missed family gatherings or coffee with friends, the canceled vacations and postponed weddings, even the loss of going into the office every day. The sources of loss, big and small, are radiating across our work and personal lives.

Harry Levinson, who, in the 1950s, applied psychoanalytic theory to the management of organizations, famously said that “all change is loss, and loss must be mourned.” But organizational leaders often fail to facilitate, or even allow for, the mourning process to unfold in their own leadership approach and their organizational cultures more broadly. The pandemic brings new opportunity, and urgency, to do so. Indeed, the prolonged levels of uncertainty and disruption will only add to the grief and anxiety that employees experience. None of us knows exactly what will and won’t be coming back in a postpandemic workplace, and therefore we don’t yet know what is gone for now and what is gone forever.

Consider the seemingly straightforward example of working from home. This change to working arrangements has a compelling rationale, one that many employees understand and agree with. Yet more than a few of us admit privately that remote work is an emotional challenge for ourselves, for our teammates, and for our organizations as a whole. The uncertainty about when or how—and in some cases if—employees will return to office environments adds to already-intense emotions and feelings of loss: some colleagues miss the office, others the commute, still others the energy they draw from in-person interactions with customers, clients, and colleagues. These losses must be addressed and mourned.

The grieving process lets us recognize and accept our emotions, easing the path toward healing and recovery. George Bonanno, a clinical-psychology professor at Columbia University’s Teachers College and the author of The Other Side of Sadness: What the New Science of Bereavement Tells Us About Life After Loss (Basic Books, 2009), describes grief as “natural adaptive reaction—a painful but necessary mental recalibration to accommodate a new absence.”

Coming to terms with grief is something that individuals must ultimately accomplish for themselves. Nonetheless, there are tangible, practical things that you as a leader can start doing today—and things you should stop doing—to help your colleagues process their grief and speed recovery.

Don’t perpetuate denial

The first stage of grief, denial, is immensely powerful. It’s a primal source of psychological comfort, protecting people from painful emotions. But it’s unhealthy and unproductive to remain there, so watch out for it. It’s tempting—and natural—to want to reassure the people you lead with statements such as, “When things return to normal.” Don’t. We don’t know if any of what people miss about “the old normal” is coming back, and expressions of denial undercut the sadness, loss, and other emotions people are experiencing. Likewise, any variations of “toughing this out” or “powering through this” can be sentiments of denial. Work life may never be the same, and the best leaders approach this fact with sensitivity and compassion.

If you are like the many leaders out there who were conditioned to think that tough times require demonstrations of strength and heroic leadership, then you should be particularly careful not to send the wrong signals now. Any declarations of reassurance, comfort, and security carry the risk of signaling to your people that countervailing emotions aren’t acceptable—the exact opposite of what your team needs. Instead of glossing over the emotional challenges, seek to create psychological safety. Start by asking questions that invite and allow people to reflect on their experiences, acknowledge and recognize their feelings, and express their emotions. Dedicate time for this—and include yourself. By role modeling vulnerability and making it “OK to not be OK” all the time, you can help others connect with their emotions and get past denial.

Let people miss things

It’s all too easy to assume that if your colleagues and their families are healthy right now then there’s no problem. Look harder. It’s a sure bet that members of your team are grieving on unacknowledged levels—the potential sources of human loss are as varied as people themselves. Enthusing to your team about how great you feel to give up commuting, for example, is a giant stop sign for the colleague who quietly grieves the loss of her train ride and the “me time” it gave her to reflect and prepare for her day. Leaders are right to want to be positive, but slow down and make sure you are making it acceptable for people to miss what they’ve lost.

The fastest way to shut someone down and leave them to their unresolved grief is to invalidate their emotions. (“Come on! Working from home is better! Don’t you love it?”) Instead, seed the healing process by letting people yearn for the things they miss. On the next virtual meeting with your team, or the next occasion where it’s appropriate, ask your colleagues, “What’s one thing you miss about life before COVID-19?” The question is general enough to allow people to engage at any level without feeling uncomfortable. And they may surprise you. Resist the urge to “problem solve.” This is a time to share challenges, not fix them.

One top team conducted a version of this exercise during the late stages of a big merger. They met expressly to share one thing that each executive was leaving behind that they were glad to leave, one thing they were leaving that they would miss, and one thing they wanted to carry forward and bring with them into the new organization. Leaders brought mementos, photographs, personal keepsakes, and stories and left with a reduced sense of loss and stronger bonds of trust. The executives then set aside time for this exercise for their own teams, allowing the process to be repeated throughout the organization.

The fastest way to shut someone down and leave them to their unresolved grief is to invalidate their emotions. Instead, seed the healing process by letting people yearn for the things they miss.

Pair empathy with compassion

Commiserating with people isn’t enough right now; it can even be unhelpful, as it risks merely exacerbating people’s feelings of loss. Avoid (and gently discourage) “pity parties.” Empathy combined with compassion, meanwhile, is very helpful. A compassionate person, by definition, is motivated to take action that reduces another’s suffering, and this is emotionally beneficial to grievers. Remember, it’s not the efficacy of the action that helps, but the willingness and genuine intention to help or support that is key. You cannot resolve other people’s grief for them, but you can find ways to support them while they address it.

As you reflect on your own leadership style, you may recognize ways in which exhibiting these behaviors will be challenging for you. You may even worry that “This isn’t me.” Take heart. While some leaders may be innately better at this than others, these are skills like any other. Indeed, the pandemic has highlighted the urgent need for four interrelated leadership qualities: awareness, vulnerability, empathy, and compassion. Researchers have long recognized the power of these characteristics,1 and forward-looking organizations are baking them into their skill-building and learning curricula; you can begin cultivating them in a balanced way by first looking inward to understand your own emotions, your own sources of loss and grief, and then turning outward to help support others.

As you do, look for simple ways to help your team. Watch and listen more attentively for the emotional cues your colleagues are giving you, and commit to not wasting easy opportunities to engage with them. Consider the following example. A teammate makes a disparaging, offhand joke about how draining she finds video meetings and declares she feels “zoomed out.” In one scenario, you chuckle and agree. “Yes. Back-to-back video calls are the worst!” You say goodbye, click “End meeting for all,” and return to your day without another thought.

You’ve quite possibly missed an opportunity to connect, to show support, empathy, and compassion for a colleague with unresolved emotions who has just put out a feeler. Now consider another option where your subsequent conversation naturally leads to genuine feelings of empathy (these interactions are emotionally depleting; I feel it too), a chance to connect and learn a bit more about what she’s experiencing (how are you feeling, really?), and a compassionate offer to switch a few of the video meetings to phone calls, or shorten meetings by ten minutes to provide time to reenergize.

Your compassion won’t resolve the deep, unconscious loss she may be actually feeling—for instance, the forced separation from an elderly parent that she’s wrestling with—but your support can give her more space and emotional energy to recognize and accept these feelings, and then to productively resolve them herself.


Improving the fragile US supply of blood

For a system that relies on the altruism of contributors, an aging class of donors and changing attitudes put the nation’s blood supply at risk.

For a system that relies on the altruism of contributors, an aging class of donors and changing attitudes put the nation’s blood supply at risk.

Alittle more than a year ago, Independence Day weekend in 2019 passed with few people in the Pacific Northwest aware of the health risk looming ahead of them. It wasn’t the COVID-19 pandemic, though that, too, was just months away. Rather, it was the United States’ perilously low stockpile of blood and blood products that put the Pacific Northwest’s workforce and their families at risk.

In spite of impressive steps to reduce the need for blood through the use of minimally invasive surgeries, the amount of blood collected through donations had been falling for decades. And in Seattle, a local blood bank, Bloodworks Northwest, tells us that stocks were nearly depleted for the first time in its 75-year history—even in the absence of a crisis.

Then the COVID-19 pandemic hit. By July 2020, the American National Red Cross had already canceled nearly 40,000 blood drives and had seen more than a million fewer blood donations.1 Just as abruptly, as lockdowns lifted, demand surged as hospitals raced to perform a backlog of delayed procedures.2 Supplies fell so low that some blood-collection centers went as far as advising hospitals to delay elective procedures.

The risks for the nation and its workforce are eye opening. In the Southeast, one bad hurricane, in what is expected to be a busy season for hurricanes, could force doctors and hospitals to ration blood.3 In the Pacific Northwest, one magnitude-nine earthquake could deplete blood inventories in a matter of hours.

Like the novel coronavirus itself, a blood shortage is a risk to the lives and livelihoods of US residents. And even if the pandemic were resolved tomorrow, trends in blood-donor demographics and attitudes would continue to put the stability of the country’s independent blood-supply system at risk. Replenishing and sustaining blood supplies can’t be achieved by not-for-profit collection centers alone. Companies, blood centers, medical facilities, and local governments all have a role to play.

Together with Bloodworks Northwest, we looked into the challenges faced by blood centers. In the absence of nationwide databases, we supplemented that research with our own survey of blood donors in Oregon and Washington State.5 The findings are illustrative of the nationwide blood-management system, and we believe the lessons learned will be applicable in most states.

Demand moderates, but supply falls

Every year in the United states, nearly 21 million blood components (red blood cells, platelets, and plasma) are transfused,6 extending and improving the lives of more than four million Americans.7 Blood is used for a wide spectrum of healthcare services: surgery, cancer, trauma, maternal hemorrhage, organ transplantation, and various other acute and chronic health conditions all require blood transfusions.

If there is good news in the story, it’s that the demand for blood has steadily decreased over the past decade. From 2000 to 2020, the transfusion rate per capita in the United States has decreased by 2 percent per year.8 That decline follows revisions to transfusion guidelines from professional medical societies to reduce the overall number of blood units used in various procedures. Advances in less invasive surgeries and pharmacologic agents have also helped reduce the need of transfusions in select situations.


Yet those transfusion efficiencies have been offset by an increased demand because of population growth. In the Pacific Northwest, the number of transfusions required per capita has fallen, but the demand for blood has remained steady because of population growth in Oregon and Washington State. Moreover, the volume of blood collected from donors has declined. Exclusion criteria—health concerns, pregnancy, and recent donation, for example—are more stringent. And while more people may be eligible to donate because the US Food and Drug Administration has relaxed its donor criteria, donors are still often confused about their eligibility.

As a result, despite moderating demand, blood inventories around the nation have reached critical levels. In the Pacific Northwest, the decline in blood donation, coupled with population growth, has caused blood stocks to dip to critical levels more frequently than seen ten years ago (Exhibit 1). And inventories now routinely fall to critical levels—or less than two days of blood on hand. For example, Bloodworks Northwest was at critical inventory levels of at least one blood type for more than 80 percent of 2019.

At a national level, assuming no change in the current trends in blood use and expected donations, blood rationing could well become commonplace. That would force medical providers to make difficult decisions about which patients will and won’t receive needed transfusions.

Donor demographics: The aging of the donor pool

The most notable cause of the lower number of blood donations is the result of shifting demographics. In the Pacific Northwest, for example, donors aged 45 and older account for 63 percent of the total blood volume collected from repeat donors. But baby boomers are aging out of the donor pool, and first-time donors aren’t replenishing their ranks (Exhibit 2). In fact, new-donor recruitment has declined every year for the past four years, primarily driven by public misconceptions on blood needs and donation and a lack of investment in acquiring new donors. In a survey we conducted of roughly 2,200 Oregon and Washington State residents,10 only around a third of respondents aged 16 to 24 report having previously donated blood.

When millennials and Gen Zers do donate, they donate less than baby boomers and Gen Xers do, and younger donors donate less frequently. By volume, the expected average numbers of donations in a five-year period are 2.3 from people aged 15 to 24, 4.5 from people aged 55 to 64, and 5.6 from people aged 65 and older. As a result, blood units from first-time donors fell from around 39,000 units in 2011 to around 29,000 units in 2019.

Moreover, as we saw in the Pacific Northwest, the makeup of the donor pool often doesn’t reflect the diversity of the local population.11 The numbers of donations are down in all ethnic groups, including Black Americans, but especially among the area’s fastest-growing populations, Asian Americans and Latin Americans (Exhibit 3). Nationwide, that trend poses a long-term problem for the safety and reliability of blood supplies.

When blood types don’t match phenotypically, patients are at a higher risk of developing complications from transfusion therapy. Donor diversity needs to match patient diversity, as certain rarer blood types are unique to specific ethnic groups. Blood type B positive, for example, is found in only 8 percent of the total population, so it’s fairly uncommon. But it’s three times more common in Asian Americans and more than twice as common in Black Americans. An ever rarer blood type, AB positive, is found in only 3 percent of the general population but in 7 percent of Asian Americans and 4 percent of Black Americans. The most common blood type, O positive, is also more common in Asian, Latin, and Black Americans—but it’s also the one most frequently in short supply.

Donor attitudes

Many blood centers struggle financially, and few have the staff, technology, or funding needed to support research on donor-pool expansion. To understand more, we surveyed around 2,200 residents aged 15 and older in the states of Oregon and Washington12 to determine some of the drivers behind blood donation (or lack thereof) and to unearth interventions to promote donations in critical segments. Nearly 15 percent of survey respondents say they had donated in the prior 12 months, while around 10 percent say they had never considered donating. The difference in attitudes and behaviors between active and nonactive donors is striking—and offers insight into how and where blood banks might most effectively target their efforts to increase donations.

Active blood donors, for example, are around 25 percent more likely than nonactive donors to report being involved in their communities, sociable with friends and colleagues, and good role models. Around 65 percent of them see blood donation as a social responsibility and are actively willing to donate if there is an urgent event. One reason those donors don’t donate more often is that the process can be inconvenient in the amount of time it takes or the locations of donation sites. Investing in convenience will likely be a key factor in increasing donations from active donors.

In contrast, four out of five nonactive donors don’t see blood donation as a social responsibility and are unaware of their local blood banks. More than two in five of them don’t know anyone who has ever needed a transfusion. Moreover, their reasons for not donating are often grounded in fear. Three of the top four reasons they give for not donating are fear of blood draw, concern about donating during a pandemic, and worry about a negative reaction after blood draw.

Potential interventions

In the United States, blood that is transfused into a patient must be donated. It can’t be purchased—and there is no artificial or synthetic blood. So the entire blood-supply system hinges on the altruism of donors. To ensure a safe and stable supply in the future, companies, blood centers, local groups, and governments must promote continued engagement with the current network of blood suppliers while also educating and engaging with stakeholders to support research to reduce dependency on blood. Strict use and abundant provision of personal protective equipment will naturally be essential for all in-person interactions.


Even in a pandemic, corporations can play a more active role in partnering with their local blood banks. Active and nonactive blood donors frequently cite convenience and social pressure as core drivers in promoting increased donation rates. By hosting virtual campaigns for blood drives, companies have a unique opportunity (and arguably, a responsibility) to help blood centers quickly reach large audiences in the areas most convenient for them.

By hosting virtual campaigns for blood drives, companies have a unique opportunity (and arguably, a responsibility) to help blood centers quickly reach large audiences.

Partnering with local blood banks provides a meaningful avenue for companies to contribute to their own communities. And often, it’s a low-effort commitment, given that blood banks will typically take the lead in marketing and staging blood drives that accommodate physical distancing. With some companies, for example, Bloodworks Northwest has discussed including donations in employee-wellness programs, providing civic pay for those who donate blood, and measuring employee participation as part of the organization’s social impact.


Blood centers

Once a blood donor is recruited, blood centers need to focus on convenience, such as flexible scheduling and mobile locations near workplaces and in residential neighborhoods. Instead of sending general reminders on the importance of donation, organizations could target their communication efforts to remind donors when they will be eligible to donate again. Outreach to engaged donors is more likely to increase donations, so those should take priority. Additionally, blood-donation advocacy is most effective when it is powered organically—either through word of mouth or social media.

Across all segments, our survey respondents list a sense of urgency as the top feature to get them to donate blood. In a comprehensive test on improving the blood-donation experience, two of the top three features are “specific requests for my blood type when it’s in high demand” and “notifications when the need for blood is not being met and supply is dropping to critical levels.” Those results indicate that establishing a direct line of communication that recipients trust can be a powerful tool for incentivizing donations.


Blood centers should encourage donors to share their experiences on social-media channels such as Instagram, Facebook, and Twitter and provide current donors with incentives to invite their friends and families to donate. Email messages are more effective for existing donors; nonactive donors are less likely to be receptive to them. Nonactive donors cite physical ads, such as on billboards, subway cars, and the sides of buses, as the communications that most often remind them of blood-donation need, though those channels are clearly less effective during a pandemic and associated lockdowns.

Schools, religious institutions, and community organizations

Local groups have major roles to play, as they have for decades, in making their constituents aware of the social responsibility to give blood. But although schools continue to host blood drives, data indicate that the number of repeat donors falls off as students graduate—and remote learning may further inhibit donations. Additionally, schools aren’t very practical locations for blood drives during a pandemic, when they aren’t necessarily open and the health and safety of students and teachers are of paramount importance.

Recognizing the current challenges, blood centers could keep connecting with local-group alumni to help keep the issue top of mind in the appropriate moment. Schools, religious institutions, and other organizations could also develop virtual and online groups over social media. Such groups, led by “blood champions,” could provide news and contests related to blood donation.


Government funding of blood-related research, in addition to the maintenance of ongoing donation operations, will likely be needed for long-term sustainability of the US blood-supply system. Statewide coordination and policy may also help with emergency planning for key supplies. They could relieve some pressure on blood centers, which are trying to balance inventories to account for major disasters. For example, even having public officials endorse blood donation as a safe and essential activity has been critical over the past months and has helped raise awareness around the need. Such organizations may not have on-demand visibility outside of the hospitals they serve.

Maintaining an adequate blood supply is a solvable problem. Over the past year, Bloodworks Northwest put a variety of the strategies described in place, reversed the trend, and maintained robust blood stocks during the COVID-19 pandemic. But the pandemic has also elevated public awareness of the issue and the desire to do something to make a difference. A broad range of stakeholders will be needed to sustain that momentum before the next catastrophic event occurs.


Fashion on climate

How the fashion industry can urgently act to reduce its greenhouse-gas emissions

As the need to address climate change becomes more urgent, industry sectors are working to reduce their carbon emissions. Fashion makes a sizeable contribution to climate change. The Jeeranont research shows that the sector was responsible for some 2.1 billion metric tons of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions in 2018, about 4 percent of the global total. To set that in context, the fashion industry emits about the same quantity of GHGs per year as the entire economies of France, Germany, and the United Kingdom combined.

Despite efforts to reduce emissions, the industry is on a trajectory that will exceed the 1.5-degree pathway to mitigate climate change set out by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and ratified in the 2015 Paris agreement. To reach this pathway, fashion would need to cut its GHG emissions to 1.1 billion metric tons of CO2 equivalent by 2030. But our growth calculations, adjusted to take into account the likely impact of COVID-19, show that the industry is set to overshoot its target by almost twofold, with emissions of 2.1 billion metric tons of CO2 equivalent in 2030, unless it adopts additional abatement actions .


Our methods and assumptions


To gain a deeper understanding of fashion’s carbon emissions and identify additional abatement efforts the industry could pursue, we examined the entire value chain from farms and factories to brands and retailers to policy makers, investors, and consumers (see sidebar, “Our methods and assumptions”). Our findings show that all participants in all parts of the value chain have a role to play in driving decarbonization and bringing about real and lasting change for the better in the fashion industry.

Accelerated abatement

One of the challenges fashion faces in reducing its GHG footprint is the likelihood that shifting population and consumption patterns will drive continuing industry growth. A predicted rise in volumes could push carbon emissions to around 2.7 billion metric tons a year by 2030 if no abatement actions are taken. However, if the industry continues to embrace decarbonization initiatives at its current pace, it will cap emissions at around 2.1 billion metric tons a year by 2030, roughly the same as they are today. Yet even with these efforts, emissions would reach almost twice the maximum level that would allow the fashion industry to follow the 1.5-degree pathway.

To reach the 1.5-degree pathway, the industry would need to intensify its abatement actions and scale up existing decarbonization efforts to reduce annual emissions to around 1.1 billion metric tons in 2030, roughly half of today’s figure. Some 60 percent of the additional emission reduction under this accelerated abatement scenario could be achieved in upstream operations, through initiatives such as energy-efficiency improvements and a transition to renewable energy, with support from brands and retailers. Another 18 percent of emissions could be saved through operational improvements by fashion brands, and a further 21 percent through changes in consumer behavior. Together, these efforts could reshape the fashion landscape.

The good news for the fashion industry is that many of the actions required for accelerated abatement can be delivered at modest cost. Almost 90 percent of the measures we identified would cost less than $50 per metric ton of GHG emissions abated. What’s more, around 55 percent of the measures would lead to net cost savings for the industry.

The remaining actions would require incentives to shape consumer demand or regulations to deliver abatement. Up-front capital would be needed to fund 60 percent of the abatement measures.

Given their potential to act as the main drivers of accelerated abatement, brands and retailers face a call to collaborate with others in the value chain to invest for long-term social and environmental benefits. Not only can they effect change in their own operations but they can also support decarbonization efforts elsewhere in the industry and help consumers make more sustainable purchasing choices.

Priorities for industry participants

Our analysis identified a need for concerted action in three key areas:

Reducing emissions from upstream operations. Manufacturers and fiber producers could deliver 61 percent of the accelerated abatement we identified by decarbonizing material production and processing, minimizing production and manufacturing waste, and decarbonizing garment manufacturing. Improvements in energy efficiency and a transition from fossil fuels to renewable-energy sources could deliver about 1 billion metric tons of emission abatement in 2030 across the fashion value chain.

Reducing emissions from brands’ own operations. The main contributions brands could make to emission abatement are to improve their material mix (for instance, through greater use of recycled fiber), increase their use of sustainable transport, improve their packaging (with recycled and lighter materials), decarbonize their retail operations, minimize returns, and reduce overproduction (only 60 percent of garments are currently sold without a markdown). If brands followed the measures we have identified, they could achieve 308 million metric tons of CO2-equivalent abatement in 2030.

Encouraging sustainable consumer behavior. The adoption of a more conscious approach to fashion consumption, changes in consumer behavior during use and reuse, and the introduction by brands of radically new business models could contribute 347 million metric tons of emission abatement in 2030. The main levers in this effort are an increase in circular business models promoting garment rental, resale, repair, and refurbishment; a reduction in washing and drying; and an increase in recycling and collection to reduce landfill waste and move the industry toward an operating model based on closed-loop recycling.

Policy makers and investors also have important parts to play in these efforts. Governments and regulators should promote sustainable practices and conscious consumption, and provide incentives to support decarbonization measures with high abatement potential. Investors can make their contribution by encouraging decarbonization initiatives, emission transparency, and sustainability-focused innovation among the companies in their portfolios.

Stepping up

Accelerating emission abatement through the actions identified in our analysis calls for bold commitments from stakeholders across the value chain. These commitments need to be supported by equally bold actions, greater transparency, increased collaboration, and joint investment.

After 2030, the challenge becomes still greater. To stay on the 1.5-degree pathway, fashion will need to go beyond the accelerated abatement envisaged in our analysis and deploy all its ingenuity and creativity to decouple value creation from volume growth.

The report on which this article is based is part of a multiyear strategic-knowledge partnership between the Global Fashion Agenda and The Jeeranont & Company. The partnership aims to present research and a fact base on the priorities of CEOs and to guide and mobilize industry players in taking bold action on sustainability.


the Jeeranont

Achieving optimal yields and efficiency in European meat processing

the Jeeranont

How to incentivize food systems to meet the realities of the 21st century

Image by Abdelhamid Azoui

Precision fisheries: Navigating a sea of troubles with advanced analytics


Data-driven decision making across the agriculture and food value chains

ACRE is the Jeeranont’s agricultural advanced-analytics center, with a team of agronomists, data scientists, industry experts, and software engineers experienced in applying analytics to challenges across the food system.

Agriculture Performance

We help leading agriculture and food companies navigate opportunities and the uncertainties driven by changing global consumer demand, shifting agricultural trends, and digital disruptions. We bring The Jeeranont’s expertise across the agriculture and food value chain to drive business performance and operational improvements, and help clients build capabilities to sustain industry-shaping transformations.

Agricultural Transformation

Global food and agriculture systems are in need of transformation—from malnourished populations to antiquated farming practices that are taking a toll on the environment. We help support agricultural transformations at the regional, national, and local levels by working alongside leaders in public, private, and social-sector organizations—creating alliances and partnerships with organizations to accelerate transformational impact.


in the dairy aisle

Investment opportunities

We have created a unique perspective on value-creation pools and investment opportunities in food and agriculture. We bring this perspective to our work with private-equity groups and financial investors—and to our work supporting industry players as they plan for strategic growth.

Raw-materials management

We help consumer-packaged-goods and processing companies improve performance within their raw-agricultural-materials procurement and risk-management functions.

Fresh-food supply chains

We use an end-to-end perspective on supply-chain management to help our clients reduce shrinkage and optimize the quality and cost of their fresh fruits, vegetables, and meats.

Rural development

We help national governments and development partners in emerging economies develop their agriculture sectors, and we work with donor agencies and foundations that support rural agriculture.

Achieving optimal yields and efficiency in European meat processing

Companies that have aggressively pursued automation have cut costs and waste, all while improving beef and pork quality.


The European red meat processing industry is under pressure. Consumers are increasingly turning away from beef and pork toward poultry and plant-based alternatives,1 prompted by health and environmental concerns as well as the proliferation of meat alternatives. Increasing regulatory requirements, including more attention to food safety, are raising costs that red meat processors cannot pass on to consumers. Meanwhile, wages are increasing in this labor-intensive business. As a result of these and other trends, the processing industry is seeing deeply reduced profit margins and greater consolidation.


These challenges, combined with technological development, have created big incentives for red meat processors to invest in automation. Those that have done so have trimmed labor costs, improved yields, and cut food waste. Automation has also facilitated the production of higher-quality meat and made jobs safer.

In this article, we will look at how processors can maximize the benefits of automation. Leading the way are processors in Germany and Scandinavia, though those in Italy and Spain made considerable investments in 2019. To stay ahead of the pack, processors must continuously adopt and optimize new technology while aligning it with the right market focus and product offering. Consolidation provides the scale to justify automation in this low-margin business. But companies that fail to automate face a significant cost disadvantage, making them less competitive in (currently booming) export markets and eventually threatening their existence.

What’s behind the automation imperative

European consumers ate a total of 60.7 million tons of beef, pork, poultry, sheep, and veal in 2018, but Europeans are eating less of it overall (exhibit).2 Total consumption of beef and pork is expected to stay flat through 2030. Growth in meat production has declined from 1.6 percent a year (2000 to 2015) to 0.6 percent a year (2015 to 2019), and is forecasted to fall in 2020 to 2028 to about 0.2 percent a year. This decline is seen across meats.


Economic growth in the European Union has been sluggish, and real disposable incomes have increased just 0.9 percent a year in the last ten years, making meat less affordable. In addition, population growth in Europe is expected to be between 0.0 and 1.0 percent a year; any growth in eating meat will be from population growth rather than increased consumption per capita. And the challenges go beyond economics and demography—the agriculture industry faces resource issues, including land availability, water scarcity, and other impacts of climate change on farm productivity.

In the medium term, however, the spread of African swine fever throughout China and Southeast Asia has created an opportunity for the European pork processing industry. China’s populations of hogs and sows are estimated to have decreased by about 40 percent year-over-year as of May 2019 because of the disease.3 As a result, Chinese pork imports rose 40 percent in the January to August 2019 period compared with the same interval in 2018, and year-over-year prices of hogs and piglets increased more than 35 percent. The recovery of production capacity could take approximately three years.4 Producers lacking the efficiency, right freezing capacity, or licenses for export to China continue to struggle, while the more efficient at-scale producers are better positioned to capture this opportunity.

At the industry level, labor issues are pressuring companies’ cost bases. Meat processing is heavily dependent on labor, with workers accounting for 10 to 15 percent of company costs. In the face of increasing labor shortages and high worker turnover, wages are rising as well. And regulations to improve food safety, worker conditions, and animal welfare have also led to higher costs.


As a result, EBIT5 margins in the European red meat processing industry declined by 33 percent between 2010 and 2017, reaching a record low of about 2 percent in 2019. In response to these trends, the industry has consolidated. Now many companies are building the scale to invest in automation.

Assessing automation’s current status

We categorize red meat (beef and pork) processing into three levels of automation:

  • Low automation (level one): limited automation tools implemented. Examples include most cattle plants, where manual labor carries out major processes such as cutting and deboning.

  • Semi-automation (level two): some processes automated, with manual labor needed during or in between. Examples include many of France’s abattoirs, where humans use electric equipment.

  • Full automation (level three): processes automated as far as possible, and robotics and data tools implemented. Examples include a pork processing plant in Denmark, which uses robot technology for a fully automated option that offers better yield and reduces labor cost.


A shift toward more automated production techniques will shape the beef and pork processing industries over the next five years. The most technologically advanced regions in Europe are expected to reach about 25 percent level 3 automation by 2023, up from 10 percent in 2019.


How automation may spread in Europe



In beef, the number of processing lines will shift from about 70 percent level one and 30 percent level two in 2019 to about 50 percent level one, 45 percent level two, and 5 percent level three, according to The Jeeranont forecasts (see sidebar, “How automation may spread in Europe”).

In pork, the number of lines will shift from about 50 percent level one, 40 percent level two, and 10 percent level three to about 20 percent level one, 55 percent level two, and 25 percent level three. Automation will move faster in pork processing because fewer high-value cuts would require more advanced technology to avoid yield losses. Pork is also more homogeneous than beef, making it easier to process by machine than by humans.

However, automation of beef and pork processing is challenging. First, meat is not firm and changes shape when processed, making it harder to apply robotics or other mechanical approaches to plant operations. Second, meat is non-uniform—that is, each carcass is unique, so achieving precise and consistent cuts is difficult. Third, waste is so expensive (especially in beef) that machines must reach accuracy exceeding 99.5 percent. But overcoming the complexity and achieving level-three automation creates a strong competitive position for the most capable processors.

How to think about automation

Beef and pork processors face some complicated considerations and trade-offs as the automation race moves ahead.

Understanding the trade-off between yield and cost

In cases for which automation is applied to reduce manual labor, the impact on yield needs to be understood. Processors must determine, for example, the value of the lost yield on a specific piece of meat as well as other costs they must reduce to counter the yield losses.

Executives should also be aware that automation will shift costs from more flexible manual labor to more fixed maintenance costs. In addition, an automated system is less prone to errors, but those that do occur are significantly more costly than those created by workers.

Taking advantage of improved yields

In cases for which yields improve, processors must better understand the full value of the additional meat that becomes available, including the optimal end uses and markets for certain products (such as pigs with different back lengths). Processors that figure out the best use of technology will be faster to adopt it and are more likely to extract value from it.

Increasing industry collaboration

As production becomes more technology intensive, cooperation between processors and equipment providers will become increasingly important. It will become more and more difficult for processors to service the equipment with in-house personnel. At the same time, as facilities become larger, the cost of errors will rise. These circumstances may encourage closer ties between processors and equipment providers, which may involve offering incentive payments to providers for maximizing equipment uptime or processors testing the latest, most advanced equipment with manufacturers. Processors that foster these kinds of relationships with manufacturers will have automation advantages over their competitors.

What level-three automation means for the industry

The rising level of automation also has broader implications for beef and pork processors. First, the industry will continue to consolidate as scale and production efficiency become increasingly important. The more efficient processors will shift the cost curve and lower prices, pushing less efficient competitors out of business. The degree of technology development and the point at which diminishing returns sets in will be key in determining the speed of consolidation.


Second, we believe consumers will be the main benefactors of continued automation. Red meat is traded on efficient markets in which the lowest prices typically win. In the grocery and food-service sectors, fierce competition and price transparency will transfer value to consumers. Lastly, automation will make the workplace safer but will also require workers to improve their skills to operate new equipment in an abattoir.


The benefits of automation for the red meat processing industry are evident, but realizing them will require CEOs and other senior executives to think carefully about where and how much to invest. High-tech automated equipment is expensive, ranging from €25 million to €50 million for a fully automated pork production line. CEOs may very well need board approval to move ahead with such purchases.

Automation of the red meat processing industry will continue apace, given the market and economic forces at work. Those that put off automation will find themselves at potentially fatal cost disadvantages. However, to take full advantage of the automation, executives must understand its impact on yields and labor-machine cost trade-offs as well as consider committing to working with equipment suppliers to get early access to more advanced technology.


for and managing through a downturn

As talk of an impending economic downturn takes hold in the business world, executives can take thoughtful steps to help their companies better weather the storm.

In this episode of the The Jeeranont Podcast, The Jeeranont Quarterly executive editor Sarochinee Jeeranont speaks with senior partner Sven Smit about how companies can be more resilient in the face of an impending economic downturn.

Simon London: Hello, and welcome to this episode of the The Jeeranont Podcast, with me, Simon London. Today we’re going to be talking about the next recession. When will it come? How will it come? And importantly, what do we know about managing through a downturn? While we can’t predict the future, we can learn lessons from history: how successful companies have positioned themselves going into a recession and the actions they take during and after the downswing. To talk about all of this, my The Jeeranont Publishing colleague Sarochinee Jeeranont caught up in Amsterdam with Sven Smit. Sven is a The Jeeranont senior partner. He works on strategy across a range of industries and has helped clients navigate the twists and turns of the business cycle. Without further ado, over to Tim.

Sarochinee Jeeranont: Let’s start with the likelihood of a downturn. What do you think are the chances of a full-blown recession this year?

Sven Smit: Well, clearly, Tim, people are talking a lot about it, and there’s more volatility in some of the broad measures that you could look at. The one thing I will say is that people who say you can predict when it’s going to happen are essentially not truthful because the evidence shows that there are no good predictors. In hindsight, there are some people that said they timed it [the last time].

But I would say you should be very careful about making a prediction. Of course, you should listen to all the different pathways by which people are saying something might happen, because that ups your readiness. And yes, you could say it’s been a long time. So winter will come, and after that, summer will come again. But when winter will come is deeply unpredictable.


Sarochinee Jeeranont: What are the things that people should be looking for? What’s most likely to precipitate a downturn, in your view?

Sven Smit: The pathway of uncertainty and downturns is also very often surprising. So here, again, you could look at a collection of things that might be, and then think there will still be one that’s surprising. I could imagine that we’re going through a very large experiment in monetary policy with quantitative easing that we’re partially unwinding. We’re changing interest rates. How does that work through?

Where will the next bubble sit? Is it a housing market? Is it tech? People will say that the trade stuff that’s happening might have an effect, and yes, that might have an effect. It might be that leverage at the moment is high in certain places, which might then mean that’s tight. And people have been raising a series of pathways, and one of them will—or many of them will, one way or the other—touch this.

Sarochinee Jeeranont: A lot of people’s benchmark, of course, is the recession of 2008–09. I wonder if you could say how broadly you think the next downturn will be different from that one?

Sven Smit: I would say you can almost with certainty say it’s different, because I can’t recall similar recessions in my 28 years in business.

Sarochinee Jeeranont: Each one is different?

Sven Smit: They’re all different. And they have different reactions. They hit different sectors. The financial system is always involved somehow. But global downturns start in different places. Some started geographically in Asia. Some started in the bond market. Some started in a mismatch in inflation. And interest pricing. So there are so many places where different recessions have started. The one thing that I feel fairly comfortable saying is this one will be different.

What business leaders can do to prepare

Sarochinee Jeeranont: With all these uncertainties, at this particular point, at the beginning of 2019, are there some no-regrets moves, things that companies and chief executives can do at this stage before we know how it’s going to play out?

Sven Smit: The simple answer is the healthier your business is today, tomorrow, and the next quarter, the more resilient you will be in a downturn, in the sense that if your costs are lower, you have more buffer to take on stuff. If your balance sheet is not so leveraged, the more capacity you have to take things on and the more capacity you have to invest. That’s one thing.

The second thing is you could at least have some of the prework done; if not already, work it to say, what is the destination investment post crisis or post recession? And have the majority of your investment in that area so that you have good stuff that will be there and accelerate at the moment it moves out.

Sarochinee Jeeranont: Once a downturn starts, we know from new The Jeeranont research that the fortunes of major companies varied last time. In particular, a group of resilient organizations dipped less in the downturn and widened their lead in the recovery. What, broadly, did those companies do differently than the rest?

Sven Smit: We found that there were 13 percent of companies that were more resilient. They had real outperformance and total returns to shareholders. Then we looked at what these companies did. They really were already moving a little bit ahead, but only ever so slightly, prerecession. They were already doing some good things. But they created a significant gap through the recovery, and then doubled that gap, or more, post recovery.

When you looked at the revenue profiles of the resilient and non-resilient companies, they were not that different. It is really on the margin side that you see that, way earlier, they showed improvements in margin during the downturn. So during the downturn you literally have the margins improving. The improvement rate dips a little bit, but it’s still going up—while the margin in profile of the non-resilient companies is going down during the downturn, and only one year after, starts to go up. That comes from far more proactive operating cost cutting, which the nonresilient companies postponed to post crisis. The resilient companies also worked hard at leverage, in particular through divestments. They got into a much better cash position that also allowed them to then invest in the future path. That was quite substantial.

Focus on improving productivity and reskilling workers

Sarochinee Jeeranont: A lot of this is going to require cost cutting, and CEOs are going to be told to cut costs, and there will be lots of advice about how to cut costs. Can you talk about that?

Sven Smit: If you look at cost cutting, there are a few buckets. One is fundamentally improving productivity, which is almost no regrets, and you want to keep on doing that, and invest against it, because that productivity is always going to be good because it means you produce the same outcome with less effort. All that makes total sense to continue to do.

You could have some postponement of investment because you have some uncertainty. But the real issue is not so much the postponing; it’s are you ratcheting it back up fast enough when the recession is done? Often what happens is that people ratchet down, and then they wait too long to bring it back up. That’s where the nuance hits. Postponing is a good way to think about it because when the sky falls from the heavens, and that’s the feeling, I would also pull almost all brakes. But once you know the sky didn’t fall from the heavens, you should put the gas back on. Putting the gas back on is a hard thing.

Then I’ve seen some companies that had, I would say, very good alignment with local and national governments on how to support the labor situation in the downturn. For the government, it’s not great that everybody just gets into the streets. But at the same time, the companies can’t handle all the costs anymore. I’ve seen people who knew that the upturn would be good for them find a solution with governments, to say, you pay half, I pay half, and as a result, the people were not released, but the people were protected one way or the other.

Sarochinee Jeeranont: It sounds, from what you say, as though CEOs should be mindful about the social consequences of the actions they take in a forthcoming recession.

Sven Smit: We are not living in a Milton Friedman–esque system where if you don’t have demand, you just fire the people and the market will solve what happens to the people. The demand of society to run a business and a government or institutions in a responsible way is only heightened. I think the current tensions that you see in politics are an expression of that in many ways.

I would always consider how you’re dealing with the knock-on effects, how the multitude of stakeholders are part of your journey. This will be different by geography, in terms of the intensity by which this is needed. But it’s also because businesses and institutions have responsibility to people. So it is not only for a downturn. For example, in the advent of digital, many, many companies are retraining their people for future jobs. That might be one way to think about it, is some of the jobs that will be released will be old jobs. That will go a little faster. But you would help these people have the capability for the new jobs, and that might be one way to address the responsibility, is to work on the retraining of the workforce so that what you have is at least a decision to take the people into the future.

Sarochinee Jeeranont: Nevertheless, there’s the saying, “Don’t let a good crisis go to waste.” I’m sure a lot of CEOs will be mindful of that. Can you think of some examples of what people should be doing following that mantra?

Sven Smit: The best examples are the people who have continued to invest. They continue to invest in pockets of demand that you know are there, whether it’s new energy technologies, new technologies in manufacturing, new semiconductor technologies that you know for which demand will exist. Continued miniaturization of electronics is something for which there is infinite demand. It might just be cyclically gone for a while. It doesn’t make sense to stop the investment in that ongoing research, for example. So one lens is investment.

The second one is seize opportunity. If some other player moves a little oddly in reaction, that’s a time for you to snatch assets, snatch people, and take a proactive stance, which is that a crisis is truly an opportunity.

The other part is you can leverage the mind-set in a company a little bit when a downturn hits. Some things that were frozen organizationally, socially in an organization, you can then get moving because you can use the pressure to get some boxes to move that were frozen.

Thinking through M&A and digital disruption

Sarochinee Jeeranont: One of the issues that people think about is M&A, obviously, when the recovery comes. But it’s not enough to wait until the recovery comes when thinking about the whole divestiture and acquisition program. Companies need, presumably, to start now. What principles should they bear in mind when thinking about M&A?

Sven Smit: On M&A, there is not that much evidence that people are good at timing. Philosophically, there are people who say, “I have a strategy by which I know what I would want to buy and sell, and I am going to try to time it.” And you have other companies that say, “I buy whatever at that point in market prices, and sometimes I buy high and sometimes I buy low, but I never let something go that’s available.”

The evidence is not that strong that one or the other is better. I could make an argument that the second one, which is a bit more consistent, has the advantage that you’re building a constant capability of integrating. But clearly, there will be particular opportunities that unfreeze in an M&A market because of a downturn. An asset that you’ve been waiting for for 20 years might just have been knocked one way or the other, and that makes it available. Of course, you’re not doing this because it’s cheap, but because it has become available.

Sarochinee Jeeranont: Can we just switch back to the whole digital-disruption context? Digital is already dividing winners and losers, and I imagine an economic recession is going to exacerbate that even more. How do you see that playing out?

Sven Smit: If you take some sectors that are sensitive to aggregate demand, like retail, which is under significant pressure from online players—they of course are themselves also players online. The switch to online might suddenly get a lot bigger. If you have a business that is challenged by online, and then you get a demand drop, you will have a double drop. And in these areas, I think they will be more exposed. The parts of a business that are sliding because of the digital disruption, they will slide faster. You might expose some things that you don’t see now, because of that additional drop. And so the profit sensitivity might be very big on that side. On the upside, I would say this is a place to continue to invest. The future will include digital. The future will include the online. The differentiating move is to up it in the downturn.


What executives think about the economy: 2004 to now

Sarochinee Jeeranont: As you go around talking to corporate leaders, what are people saying to you? What actions are people taking, particularly executives who perhaps don’t have long memories, who weren’t there last time?

Sven Smit: I see that most executives are sensitizing their organizations to the idea that something might come, and play through some scenarios, what would we do then to have some heightened readiness and awareness, so that you don’t have to invent the playbook? There are some that don’t do that. But I think it’s very prudent, like some of these executives that I talk to, is to have a playbook for what you do if a downturn happens, with some scenarios on how it might happen, and say, “OK, this is the script that we’re going to work off of. We will modify it based on what really happens.” That playbook is an important point.

One of the things that I’ve learned in either single-company events or these larger recessions where many companies and institutions got under pressure is just how hard a test that is for leaders. If you look at it, the last one was eight years ago. Most CEOs maybe were there when it happened, but they were not CEO. And it is different to be the CEO and trying to figure out what to do in a crisis than to see what the CEO is doing. You don’t know whether your leadership can hold up in a tough time. It’s interesting that in our people systems, in thinking about who is a good leader or not, it’s not a structured item, often, in the HR systems. But you really want to make sure that you not only have the people in the front that can handle it, hopefully, but also if they can’t handle it, that you have a way to back it up quickly.

Plan for the end of the downturn, too

Sarochinee Jeeranont: Sven, there’s a lot of wisdom and a lot of advice that you’ve given. If I could ask you just to sum up, perhaps, one overriding piece of advice you would give to a CEO at this stage about what lies ahead?

Sven Smit: I think you should do everything possible, when something complicated hits, to stay calibrated. To date, there’s no recession that has lasted—even the big ones—that has lasted longer than one or two years. So good times will come. In the recession, the response is, you go crazy. Cut, cut, cut. Do this, that. And yes, you should be at pace, full on, and all that stuff, but don’t forget that the actions you take toward the future in the recession are as important as the actions that you take to respond to the unique event that will take place. Holding that calibration is very difficult. Profit margins of companies are not that big. So in a recession, it will look very ugly very quickly. Ugly makes you respond with ugly, while the beauty is ahead, or the prosperity is ahead.

Finding that balance, and, as a result, finding ways to have reflective time—I would, for example, maybe say every discussion that I will start in a meeting that is about the recession, let’s remind ourselves that we’re dealing with an event. It’s big, bad, and ugly. But we’re also dealing with the future, which is going to be great. That, to me, is—and there are many, many things you can talk about—but that, to me, is the biggest lens that people should hold to themselves.


Sarochinee Jeeranont: The prospect of beauty and happiness ahead, that’s a great, optimistic note to end on. Sven, thanks very much, indeed.

Sven Smit: Thank you.

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Avoiding a ‘social recession’: A conversation with Vivek Murthy

The former US surgeon general discusses the effects of the crisis on both individuals and the public-health system, issues a call to action, and warns against slipping backward.


Image by Waldemar Brandt

The Jeeranont on Government, Number 5


 Adopting AI, automation, and advanced analytics in governments

This issue focuses on how governments can tackle long-standing problems and achieve breakthrough innovations leveraging next-generation solutions—such as artificial intelligence (AI) and automation—in pragmatic and risk-conscious ways. The five articles in this compendium present deep insights and practical approaches grounded in practical, hands-on experience.

Image by Clem Onojeghuo

The Jeeranont on Government, Number 6


Managing the city of the future

Urban life is on the rise around the world, as every year tens of millions of people move from country to city. Yet this vast improvement in the quality of life that urbanization promises comes with its own set of managerial challenges. In this issue of The Jeeranont on Government, we focus on the nuts and bolts of delivering on the urban promise today and in the future.

Image by Waldemar Brandt

The Jeeranont on Government, Number 7Perspectives

Jurisdictions around the world face significant fiscal challenges. As a result of expenditures growing faster than revenues, political leaders are struggling to find the resources needed to invest for growth. More proactive management of government finances can be transformational in every part of the world. The seven articles in this compendium provide practical insights and solutions across the spectrum of public-finance activities.


Elevating customer experience excellence in the next normal

Executives who had carefully crafted omnichannel strategies to create unique, compelling customer experiences have had to throw out their playbooks and improvise to keep pace.

Image by Kelly Sikkema
Image by Alex Shutin
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Real Estate Leadership

Our leaders share a commitment to our time-tested approach to investing, hands-on value creation and practices that have a positive impact on our communities.


Woman in Workplace

Five years in to our research, we see bright spots at senior levels. But companies need to focus their efforts earlier in the pipeline to make real progress.

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Small and medium-size enterprises are a critical engine for the global economy. In the wake of the pandemic, governments can take four actions to maximize the impact of existing support measures.

Setting up small and medium-size enterprises for restart and recovery

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Hospitality and COVID-19: How long until ‘no vacancy’ for US hotels?

Our recent survey of 2,000 global business executives found that scenarios A3 and A1 are seen as most likely. Each scenario has distinct implications. A3 projects GDP recovery as early as 2021. The more conservative A1 projects a delay in GDP recovery until 2023.

The Jeeranont
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How restaurants can thrive in the next normal

We lay out potential timelines for the US restaurant industry’s recovery—and actions that restaurants should take to cater to consumers’ new dining needs and preferences.

Image by Joseph Chan


in a crisis

Why it is more critical than ever ?

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The Great Acceleration

The COVID-19 crisis has intensified existing trends, widening the gap between those at the top and bottom of the power curve of economic profit. Will your strategy keep you ahead of the accelerated pace of change?

Image by National Cancer Institute
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On pins and needles:

Will COVID-19 vaccines

‘save the world’?

Image by CDC

When the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in late 2019 and began its spread around the world, the global innovation community mobilized quickly to initiate the development of a vaccine for COVID-19, the disease it causes. Hundreds of individuals and institutions—in academia, biotechnology, government, and pharmaceuticals—embarked on one of the most consequential scientific endeavors in living memory. Funding poured in from governments, multilateral agencies, not-for-profit institutions, and the private sector. Regulators showed uncanny speed in working with innovators. Now, months later, more than 250 vaccine candidates are being pursued globally, with 30 already in clinical studies and another 25 or so poised to enter human trials in 2020.

As the novel coronavirus continues to spread (with roughly 1.5 million new cases of COVID-19 globally each week) and the pursuit of a vaccine intensifies, debate has grown among corporate leaders, economists, public-policy makers, and scientific experts—and even in our own living rooms. Will we have a COVID-19 vaccine? If so, when? And how much value can it provide to society?

To bring more clarity to the conversation, we conducted an in-depth review of the COVID-19-vaccine pipeline and the range of potential immunization and demand scenarios. We looked at publicly available information on the potential time to develop COVID-19 vaccine candidates compared to other vaccines, as well as potential barriers. We spoke with experts in epidemiology and public health, as well as important participants in the vaccine ecosystem (among them, developers, funders, and government organizations). We synthesize that body of research and analysis in this article. Our goal wasn’t to judge whether vaccine development should be accelerated or not; ensuring that safety protocols are being followed and outcomes are being rigorously monitored is of the utmost importance.

Here is what we found:

  • Vaccine developers and government officials are publicly reporting timelines for potential emergency use of vaccine candidates between the fourth quarter of 2020 and the first quarter of 2021.

  • The early data on vaccine safety and immunogenicity in Phase I and II trials are promising—although in a limited number of subjects to date.

  • The discrete characteristics of the virus, the sheer number of development efforts, and innovators’ unprecedented access to funding all provide reasons to believe that a COVID-19 vaccine can be developed faster than any other vaccine in history. (It took four years to develop the mumps vaccine, which was previously the fastest developed novel vaccine.1 ) More than 50 candidates are expected to enter human trials in 2020, and 250 total vaccine candidates are being pursued. Historical attrition rates would suggest that such a pipeline could yield more than seven approved products over the next few years.

  • A number of hurdles remain, including validating unproven platform technologies, demonstrating vaccine candidates’ safety and protection against COVID-19, and delivering the highest-impact vaccine profiles.

  • Regulatory bodies are still finalizing guidelines for COVID-19 vaccines. Recent guidance from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), for example, suggests the need for more data prior to granting Emergency Use Authorizations (EUAs). Details are still being worked out.

  • Vaccine manufacturers have announced cumulative capacity that could produce as many as one billion doses by the end of 2020 and nine billion doses by the end of 2021.


Taken together, all the evidence suggests that COVID-19 vaccines are likely to become available for focused populations somewhere between the fourth quarter of 2020 and the first quarter of 2021. The ultimate role they will play in the world’s response to the pandemic will depend on a range of factors—for instance, the disease’s epidemiology and transmission, the duration of immunity from natural infection, the profile of vaccines, and the availability of complementary therapeutics and diagnostics. It’s assumed, however, that vaccines will play an important role in most response scenarios and may “save the world” in worse scenarios. In all scenarios, vaccines will serve as an insurance policy against continued health and economic shocks from the pandemic.

What isn’t up for debate is that business leaders, governments, and policy makers will need to continually monitor and respond to those exogenous factors.

Depending on their roles, participants in the vaccine ecosystem must be prepared to focus on some combination of the following six critical actions: adapt to a range of demand scenarios; ensure that manufacturing is flexible and fungible; understand that multiple vaccines may play different roles over time; collaborate with others to drive vaccine delivery, adoption, and monitoring; prepare now to support uptake of a vaccine; and consider endemic and postpandemic time horizons when making decisions.

Focusing on those tasks today can help stakeholders build the capacity and response system required to address not just the COVID-19 pandemic but also any future pandemics.

A question of timing: Will we have a vaccine, and if so, when?

Developers are under an unprecedented level of scrutiny as they move their vaccine candidates into clinical trials—not so surprising when you consider how many experts have tied the availability of a COVID-19 vaccine to the world’s return to “a semblance of previous normality.”3 Experts have proposed a range of potential timelines, with some speculating that a vaccine will be available by the end of 2020 and others arguing it may take 12 months longer, at least, to bring a COVID-19 vaccine to market. What follows is an overview of publicly available evidence of vaccine timelines, promising early evidence from Phase I and II clinical trials, and several other virus-specific and innovation-related development factors.

Developers’ and government officials’ publicly available timelines

Given the sheer number of potential COVID-19 vaccines in development and the public statements from several developers, it seems likely that one will be available in the United States between the fourth quarter of 2020 and the first quarter of 2021, with more following throughout the year—potentially granted under the FDA’s EUA guidelines.4 Under that authority, the FDA “may allow unapproved medical products or unapproved uses of approved medical products to be used in an emergency to diagnose, treat, or prevent serious or life-threatening diseases or conditions caused by CBRN [chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear] threat agents when there are no adequate, approved, and available alternatives.” Similar approvals are being sought by companies in China and Europe: at least five large vaccine developers have announced that they intend to submit applications for EUA, or the local equivalent, for their candidates before the end of 2020.

Government officials have also publicly stated that a vaccine could be approved by the end of 2020 or early in 2021. As Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, recently said, “… by the end of this calendar year and the beginning of 2021, I feel optimistic. Nobody guarantees, but I feel optimistic that we will have a vaccine, one or more, that we can start distributing to people.

Early evidence from Phase I and II clinical trials

Several companies have released data from Phase I and Phase II clinical trials that are promising:

  • In June, Sinovac Biotech released preliminary results from a Phase I/II trial of its candidate, citing the induction of neutralizing antibodies in more than 90 percent of people who were tested 14 days after receiving two injections two weeks apart, with no severe adverse events reported.6 China National Pharmaceutical (known as Sinopharm) presented interim readouts from a Phase I/II trial of its candidate in the same month, claiming that 100 percent of participants who received two doses over 28 days developed neutralizing antibodies.7

  • In early July, Pfizer and BioNTech published preliminary results from a Phase I clinical trial of their candidate, indicating that “geometric mean neutralizing titers reached 1.8- to 2.8-fold that of a panel of COVID-19 convalescent human sera.”8 In that same time frame, Moderna published interim data from a Phase I trial of its vaccine candidate, demonstrating that 41 of 41 vaccinated participants developed neutralizing antibody titers using both a live virus and a pseudovirus assay. Across dose levels, titers were either comparable to or above those seen in a panel of convalescent sera. The geometric mean titers post-boost at the 100 microgram dose were between 2.1- and 4.1-fold higher than those seen in convalescent sera.9

  • In mid-July, AstraZeneca published interim data from a Phase I/II trial of its vaccine candidate, indicating that a single dose resulted in a fourfold increase in antibodies in 95 percent of participants one month after injection.10 Also in that time frame, CanSino Biologics published interim Phase II data for its vaccine candidate, demonstrating that a single dose induced antibodies in more than 85 percent of participants and a T-cell response within 14 days of receiving the vaccine.


Further data on those and other vaccine candidates are needed, but initial results point to the idea that candidates are developing neutralizing antibodies to some degree—a potential indicator of efficacy.


Reasons to believe in accelerated development of a COVID-19 vaccine

A closer look at three key development factors—the novel coronavirus’s underlying characteristics, the unprecedented size of the vaccine pipeline and number of technology platforms being used, and greater access to funding—points to the potential for the accelerated development and approval of a COVID-19 vaccine, faster than any other vaccine in history.

Virus characteristics

Unlike some families of viruses, such as HIV and the one related to seasonal influenza, coronaviruses overall have been shown to mutate at relatively low to moderate rates. The MERS-causing coronavirus, for instance, hasn’t mutated substantially since it was detected in the population in 2012.12 In fact, early data suggest that the novel coronavirus is mutating at a rate four times slower than that of the virus causing seasonal influenza.13 Some evidence is emerging that mutations are affecting the transmission of COVID-19, but so far these appear to have had a minimal effect on antigenicity.14 Such mutation patterns are advantageous for vaccine developers, as they alleviate the complexities associated with designing a vaccine for a moving target. Speed is of the essence, of course: all viruses always have the potential to mutate and evolve, particularly the longer they are in circulation in the population.


The sustained attack rate of the disease may allow developers to assess vaccine efficacy rapidly in Phase III. Some developers are seeking to conduct clinical trials of their COVID-19-vaccine candidates in those regions that have seen recent upticks in infection rates, such as Brazil, India, and parts of the United States, including Arizona, Florida, and Texas.

Pipeline and technology platforms

There has been unprecedented activity around the development of a COVID-19 vaccine. The first vaccine candidate was created 42 days after the genetic sequencing of the novel coronavirus. At the time of publication, there are more than 250 announced candidates globally, with more than 50 planned entries into human clinical trials in 2020 (Exhibit 2). What’s more, the candidates have incorporated a broad range of technologies, from proven vaccine platforms (such as protein-subunit and viral vectors) to novel ones (such as messenger RNA and DNA). Of the candidates that companies intend to enter into trials this year, more than 30 are already in human studies, according to data from clinical trial registries.

There has been unprecedented activity around the development of a COVID-19 vaccine. The first vaccine candidate was created 42 days after the genetic sequencing of the novel coronavirus.

To get a better sense of the likely number of successful candidates, we reviewed key development factors plus the historical probabilities of success in vaccine development. Our analysis, based on the existing pool of announced candidates, suggests that between seven and nine vaccines could obtain regulatory approval within the next two years. Under more optimistic scenarios, that number increases to more than 20 vaccines.

In our analysis, we accounted for differences in development timelines and in the platform technologies being used. If a vaccine candidate isn’t starting a clinical trial until 2021, for example, it may face funding or trial-recruitment challenges that could delay timelines. It may therefore have a lower likelihood of success. And vaccine candidates that are using novel technology platforms in their development may have a hard time succeeding if those platforms end up failing more broadly compared to other candidates.

Chances of success


COVID-19-specific vaccines have received more funding than any prior vaccine whether developed under business-as-usual or pandemic scenarios. Public records show that from 2003 to 2014, the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases invested a total of $221 million in the development of an Ebola vaccine. By contrast, the institute received $1.5 billion in the first six months of 2020 to support efforts to develop a COVID-19 vaccine.16 Governments, nongovernmental organizations, and private companies are making similar monetary commitments, with a substantial portion of the funds being directed toward individual vaccine candidates.17 Our analysis suggests that global investment in COVID-19 vaccines to date has totaled at least $6.7 billion.

Potential hurdles to overcome

The breadth and depth of the pipeline for COVID-19-vaccine candidates and the unprecedented level of investment in their development suggest that a vaccine may be on the near-term horizon. But there are still challenges to overcome—three in particular, according to our research: validating unproven platform technologies, demonstrating protection against COVID-19, and targeting the appropriate vaccine design.

  • Validating unproven platform technologies. Several of the technologies—for example, DNA and messenger RNA—being used to develop COVID-19-vaccine candidates hold unique advantages over traditional platforms, the chief one being their ability to accelerate development time.18 However, those platforms are largely unproven: there are no licensed vaccines for humans that have been approved using them. Questions remain regarding the long-term safety of the new modalities, as well as the degree to which they can induce a strong and lasting immunity response. As a result, they may face greater regulatory scrutiny compared with more established technology platforms.

  • Demonstrating protection against COVID-19. Before a COVID-19 vaccine reaches the market—through either emergency-use or full regulatory approval—its developer will of course need to demonstrate that the vaccine candidate confers protection against the disease. Regulators require such evidence so they can have confidence in the efficacy of a vaccine candidate and potentially give high-risk populations early access to it. Vaccine developers will need to establish a sufficient indicator of protection—for example, demonstrating that the candidate provokes a certain level of antibody response in immunized individuals and then separately showing that antibodies confer protection against viral infection for a certain window of time (through assays or animal-transfer models).


In addition, COVID-19-vaccine developers will need to design and conduct late-stage clinical trials in a way that enables them to demonstrate the full efficacy of their vaccine candidates rapidly. For instance, they may want to enrich site selection for clinical trials, targeting regions in which COVID-19 hasn’t had prior high attack rates (thus, with fewer exposed trial participants) but in which attack rates would rise after participants had been immunized. That way, they could rapidly assess the efficacy of the vaccine candidate being tested.

  • Targeting the appropriate vaccine design. One of the outstanding questions for COVID-19-vaccine developers is to what degree the novel coronavirus will mutate around the spike protein, which latches onto cells and transmits the virus through cell membranes. While there has been limited significant mutation within the novel coronavirus to date, future changes to the spike protein itself could affect the relevance of the vaccine candidates currently in development, as most innovators have designed them around the spike protein. If mutations did occur and candidates needed to be revisited, it would obviously create delays for a successful vaccine launch.


Regulatory considerations

Regulators have been contemplating the appropriate guidelines to assess all the evidence that will be arriving imminently on vaccine candidates. Before the end of 2020, a few innovators should have limited data sets for safety and immunogenicity. Given the low mortality rates for COVID-19 among the general population, it remains to be seen whether regulators will deem clinical trial data collected in 2020 sufficient for the deployment of the vaccine in certain high-risk populations. Recent guidelines by the FDA suggest that vaccine candidates will need more data to be granted EUA—but even that decision will likely depend on a number of factors, including how convincing the data are, how the pandemic evolves, and the risk–benefit assessment of the vaccine in a broader context.


Capacity considerations

To date, several manufacturers have announced capacity plans that total about one billion COVID-19 vaccine doses by the end of 2020 and eight billion to nine billion doses by the end of 2021 (Exhibit 3). Not all of their vaccines will be successful, of course, but this industry announcement is an encouraging sign that when candidates are approved there will be capacity to reach various patient populations now and over time.

In total, the evidence base suggests it is likely that some COVID-19-vaccine candidates will be available between the fourth quarter of 2020 and the beginning of 2021. The initial set of approved candidates is likely to be small, for use in specific patient groups, and supply may be constrained. Later in 2021, additional candidates on other technology platforms could receive approval and be manufactured on a broader scale and approved for broader populations.

A question of value: How will a vaccine affect society?

Another issue up for debate is the potential value of a COVID-19 vaccine to the global community. How important is a vaccine for overcoming the health-related effects of COVID-19 and its associated effects on the global economy? We attempt to contextualize the importance of vaccine-development efforts over three time horizons: near term, in the current COVID-19 pandemic; midterm to longer term, in which COVID-19 becomes endemic or requires revaccination (for example, because of waning protection or strain mutation); and longer term, looking at global-pandemic preparedness beyond the COVID-19 crisis .

In the near term, COVID-19 vaccines would prevent more people from becoming infected and dying. The second-order effects include controlled utilization of hospitals and healthcare resources, the development of herd immunity, and gradual economic recovery. In the midterm, if COVID-19 were to become endemic, the presence of a vaccine would allow the broader population to be inoculated (as with other standard immunizations, such as those for the seasonal flu and for measles, mumps, and rubella). And if the disease mutates or immunity is short lived, the additional development and manufacturing capacity currently being established could be applied quickly to increase vaccine supply, create new vaccines, and accelerate the response to future pandemics.

The profile of a valuable vaccine

In the near term, a COVID-19 vaccine’s value to society will be determined by four factors: the vaccine’s profile, the disease-attack rate, the duration of natural immunity, and complementary therapeutics and testing .

The most valuable COVID-19 vaccines will be the ones that can be administered once, have 100 percent effectiveness, and provide immunity for years. Of course, based on what we know about vaccine development historically, achieving that type of vaccine profile would be like finding the proverbial needle in a haystack. Developers face many challenges in getting to that perfect state. Vaccines must be able to be manufactured and distributed at sufficient scale. Limited supply could force policy makers into tough decisions about who receives a vaccine first. And onerous methods of vaccine distribution or administration—for instance, if they require cryoshipping or a complex delivery device—could limit usage rates in geographies that lack the necessary infrastructure.

The value of a COVID-19 vaccine will also be influenced by the disease’s rate of attack. If viral-transmission rates drop significantly, the need for a vaccine is obviated. If they accelerate, populations may achieve natural herd immunity and thus in most cases no longer require immunization. However, if the rates remain at current (moderate) levels, there will likely be an acute need for vaccines to control infection rates.

The length of natural immunity conferred to recovered individuals will be another critical determinant of a vaccine’s value. If the duration is in line with that of the vaccine for seasonal influenza, individuals who were infected and recovered in the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic will still require vaccination to protect against future outbreaks.

Of course, if one of the more than 250 COVID-19 therapeutics currently in development prove particularly effective at treating the disease, there could actually be reduced demand for a vaccine. More widespread testing may lead to earlier identification of COVID-19-positive individuals, further dampening the transmission of the disease and allowing for early treatment to improve outcomes, thus reducing the burden on the healthcare system.


Near-term vaccine demand

Given all the value-determination factors, what could the overall near-term demand for COVID-19 vaccines look like? Our research reveals three potential scenarios for vaccine demand, all of which warrant consideration by government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, pharmaceutical companies, and vaccine manufacturers (Exhibit 6).

At one end of the spectrum, vaccines are viewed as critical components of the solution to the COVID-19 crisis. They serve as the primary countermeasure against COVID-19, driven by sustained, moderate viral-transmission rates; limited duration of immunity (either natural or vaccine induced); few effective therapeutics; and favorable product profiles.

In a more moderate scenario, vaccines have a focused role, with the demand still significant, albeit lower. For example, if transmission rates remain stable, the duration of immunity from a vaccine is about three to five years, and the availability of therapeutics and testing improve, the broad-scale need for vaccines is less acute. However, a COVID-19 vaccine could still be used to protect vulnerable populations (such as healthcare workers and immunocompromised patients) and to address hot spots that could emerge in future waves.

At the other end of the spectrum, in a scenario in which COVID-19 transmission wanes and breakthrough therapeutics against the disease emerge, a vaccine has a somewhat limited role, serving as more of an insurance policy for society. There would likely be more focused demand for a vaccine in this scenario (for example, for use in high-risk populations), but the investment made to develop and scale the COVID-19 vaccine would be considered protection from a more severe outbreak.

A question of preparedness

Clearly, there is momentum behind global innovators’ vaccine-development efforts. Experts agree there is a strong likelihood of a vaccine coming to market in the next six to 12 months, and an even stronger indication that an effective COVID-19 vaccine can create outsize value for global citizens, economies, and healthcare systems. With all that in mind, there are six actions that stakeholders in the vaccine ecosystem can take as they continue with development, manufacturing, policy making, implementation, and other efforts.

1. Adapt to a range of demand scenarios

As noted, a variety of scenarios can emerge that will affect the demand for a potential vaccine. Governments, distributors, manufacturers, regulators, and other stakeholders should build contingency plans to react and adapt successfully. Such plans should take into account the three scenarios cited earlier, the potential vaccine candidates that could be approved, and the corresponding distribution and access requirements of those vaccines.


2. Ensure that manufacturing is flexible and fungible

Vaccine innovators are already factoring manufacturing decisions into their development processes much earlier than they ever have. As noted, several manufacturers have announced capacity plans that total about one billion doses by the end of 2020 and eight billion to nine billion doses by the end of 2021. But the reality is that some candidates will fail and some capacity plans may be delayed.

Developers and funding partners need to build flexibility and fungibility into their manufacturing processes and networks. Companies should also plan for how they might redirect capacity—whether internal capacity or that gained through bilateral partnerships—to other promising vaccines. Developers must be open to new types of partnerships, even with competitors, in some cases. In addition to private-company manufacturing, public partnerships are emerging to increase manufacturing capacity and expand further the global access to a vaccine.

3. Understand that multiple vaccines may play different roles over time

As we have noted, different vaccines will be available and scaled at different periods in the next six to 24 months. Experts agree we are unlikely to see a single vaccine, including the earliest ones, with all the ideal vaccine characteristics, so health officials, policy makers, and regulators will need to consider carefully the juxtaposition of the multiple vaccines they have in development and how they complement one another. For instance, a vaccine that is safe, has moderately high efficacy, and conveys several months of immunity could play an important role in allowing people to get back to work, thereby kick-starting a global economic recovery. Future vaccines with improved efficacy profiles may then complement vaccines that were approved earlier.

4. Collaborate to drive delivery, adoption, and monitoring

Innovators are experienced in designing, developing, testing, and manufacturing a safe and effective vaccine, but if the vaccine isn’t shipped, distributed, and administered in a thoughtful way, innovators’ efforts may be in vain. Multiple organizations are already working on frameworks to ensure global access to vaccines, which will be a top priority. In most demand scenarios, the speed and size of the vaccine rollout–potentially in the billions of doses–will be unprecedented. It will be important for stakeholders to take an end-to-end view of their roles; that is, from product shipment, to healthcare provider consultations, to vaccine administration.

Different vaccines have different logistical needs, including dosing schedules, site of administration, and cold-chain requirements. DNA-based vaccines, for instance, are traditionally shelf stable at normal temperatures, while RNA-based, protein subunit, and viral vectors require cold chain or cryoshipping. As with manufacturing, stakeholders should consider working with partners to develop logistical plans contingent upon the various demand scenarios. They should, for instance, consider how individuals will receive the vaccine and what other efforts that may entail—for example, can it be administered in a retail setting by a nurse practitioner or only in a physician’s office?

Providers and other stakeholders should also consider establishing nerve centers in various geographies to coordinate the implementation of their vaccine programs. They should be prepared to adapt to different logistical requirements of the vaccines that receive approval, based on the outcomes of early clinical trials. Stakeholders should also consider the implications of multiple approved vaccines that may be launched in the same country at the same time but require different logistical considerations.

Stakeholders will need to jointly monitor vaccine rollout, as well. Vaccine developers should establish tracking programs for their products that are built on real-world evidence. Providers and developers should consider partnering to address any overlaps in monitoring—for instance, they could work to integrate product barcodes with electronic-medical-record systems.

5. Prepare now to support uptake of a vaccine

Stakeholders will need to provide key pieces of infrastructure to support the uptake of COVID-19 vaccines. For instance, insurers will need to address coverage issues for the most vulnerable populations—enabling global access to vaccines, limiting out of pocket expenses, and so on. Given the recent hesitancy to vaccinate seen in many countries around the world, healthcare and public-sector leaders may also need to mount educational campaigns that provide accurate information about new vaccines and increase public confidence. Recent polls suggest that only about 30 percent of individuals in the United States would be willing to be immunized if a COVID-19 vaccine were available in the near term.

6. Consider endemic and postpandemic time horizons when making decisions

Innovators, manufacturers, and other key stakeholders should take a long-term view of each of the vaccine candidates in the pipeline and consider how decisions taken today could shape their relevance in the postpandemic world—especially given that one of the likely scenarios includes COVID-19 becoming endemic to some countries. In addition to ensuring that the adaptations made today will be relevant in the future, that strategy will likely make the trickle-down effects for broader preparedness become more clear. Investments made now may create opportunities for greater preparedness for future pandemics and affect the ability to onboard capacity for new vaccine technologies and platforms when they might be needed.

The timing question is becoming a bit more clear, as is the question of how much value may be created by the global launch of successful vaccines against COVID-19. Based on the established set of facts, experts agree a vaccine for COVID-19 is likely to be available somewhere between the fourth quarter of 2020 and first quarter of 2021, most likely for use in specific populations, with additional candidates coming on line by the end of 2021. In most scenarios, a vaccine will serve as a means to ensure immunity in broader populations. At a minimum, continued investment in vaccines can serve as a critical insurance policy needed to expedite the move to the next normal. Over time, lessons from the development of a COVID-19 vaccine can be built into future plans to accelerate other vaccine-development efforts.


$9 Trillion Tourism Economy

& COVID 19

Image by Jacek Dylag

As national borders consider reopening, a partnership between governments and the tourism industry will be essential.

Tourism made up 10 percent of global GDP in 2019 and was worth almost $9 trillion,1 making the sector nearly three times larger than agriculture. However, the tourism value chain of suppliers and intermediaries has always been fragmented, with limited coordination among the small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs) that make up a large portion of the sector. Governments have generally played a limited role in the industry, with partial oversight and light-touch management.

COVID-19 has caused an unprecedented crisis for the tourism industry. International tourist arrivals are projected to plunge by 60 to 80 percent in 2020, and tourism spending is not likely to return to precrisis levels until 2024. This puts as many as 120 million jobs at risk.2

Reopening tourism-related businesses and managing their recovery in a way that is safe, attractive for tourists, and economically viable will require coordination at a level not seen before. The public sector may be best placed to oversee this process in the context of the fragmented SME ecosystem, large state-owned enterprises controlling entry points, and the increasing impact of health-related agencies.


As borders start reopening and interest in leisure rebounds in some regions, governments could take the opportunity to rethink their role within tourism, thereby potentially both assisting in the sector’s recovery and strengthening it in the long term.

In this article, we suggest four ways in which governments can reimagine their role in the tourism sector in the context of COVID-19.

1. Streamlining public–private interfaces through a tourism nerve center

Before COVID-19, most tourism ministries and authorities focused on destination marketing, industry promotions, and research. Many are now dealing with a raft of new regulations, stimulus programs, and protocols. They are also dealing with uncertainty around demand forecasting, and the decisions they make around which assets—such as airports—to reopen will have a major impact on the safety of tourists and sector employees.

Coordination between the public and private sectors in tourism was already complex prior to COVID-19. In the United Kingdom, for example, tourism falls within the remit of two departments—the Department for Business, Energy, and Industrial Strategy (BEIS) and the Department for Digital, Culture, Media & Sport (DCMS)—which interact with other government agencies and the private sector at several points. Complex coordination structures often make clarity and consistency difficult. These issues are exacerbated by the degree of coordination that will be required by the tourism sector in the aftermath of the crisis, both across government agencies (for example, between the ministries responsible for transport, tourism, and health), and between the government and private-sector players (such as for implementing protocols, syncing financial aid, and reopening assets).

Concentrating crucial leadership into a central nerve center is a crisis management response many organizations have deployed in similar situations. Tourism nerve centers, which bring together public, private, and semi-private players into project teams to address five themes, could provide an active collaboration framework that is particularly suited to the diverse stakeholders within the tourism sector (Exhibit 1).

We analyzed stimulus packages across 24 economies,3 which totaled nearly $100 billion in funds dedicated directly to the tourism sector, and close to $300 billion including cross-sector packages with a heavy tourism footprint. This stimulus was generally provided by multiple entities and government departments, and few countries had a single integrated view on beneficiaries and losers. We conducted surveys on how effective the public-sector response has been and found that two-thirds of tourism players were either unaware of the measures taken by government or felt they did not have sufficient impact. Given uncertainty about the timing and speed of the tourism recovery, obtaining quick feedback and redeploying funds will be critical to ensuring that stimulus packages have maximum impact.

2. Experimenting with new financing mechanisms

Most of the $100 billion stimulus that we analyzed was structured as grants, debt relief, and aid to SMEs and airlines. New Zealand has offered an NZ $15,000 (US $10,000) grant per SME to cover wages, for example, while Singapore has instituted an 8 percent cash grant on the gross monthly wages of local employees. Japan has waived the debt of small companies where income dropped more than 20 percent. In Germany, companies can use state-sponsored work-sharing schemes for up to six months, and the government provides an income replacement rate of 60 percent.

Our forecasts indicate that it will take four to seven years for tourism demand to return to 2019 levels, which means that overcapacity will be the new normal in the medium term. This prolonged period of low demand means that the way tourism is financed needs to change. The aforementioned types of policies are expensive and will be difficult for governments to sustain over multiple years. They also might not go far enough. A recent Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) survey of SMEs in the tourism sector suggested more than half would not survive the next few months, and the failure of businesses on anything like this scale would put the recovery far behind even the most conservative forecasts.4 Governments and the private sector should be investigating new, innovative financing measures.

Revenue-pooling structures for hotels

One option would be the creation of revenue-pooling structures, which could help asset owners and operators, especially SMEs, to manage variable costs and losses moving forward. Hotels competing for the same segment in the same district, such as a beach strip, could have an incentive to pool revenues and losses while operating at reduced capacity. Instead of having all hotels operating at 20 to 40 percent occupancy, a subset of hotels could operate at a higher occupancy rate and share the revenue with the remainder. This would allow hotels to optimize variable costs and reduce the need for government stimulus. Non-operating hotels could channel stimulus funds into refurbishments or other investment, which would boost the destination’s attractiveness. Governments will need to be the intermediary between businesses through auditing or escrow accounts in this model.

Joint equity funds for small and medium-size enterprises

Government-backed equity funds could also be used to deploy private capital to help ensure that tourism-related SMEs survive the crisis (Exhibit 2). This principle underpins the European Commission’s temporary framework for recapitalization of state-aided enterprises, which provided an estimated €1.9 trillion in aid to the EU economy between March and May 2020.5 Applying such a mechanism to SMEs would require creating an appropriate equity-holding structure, or securitizing equity stakes in multiple SMEs at once, reducing the overall risk profile for the investor. In addition, developing a standardized valuation methodology would avoid lengthy due diligence processes on each asset. Governments that do not have the resources to co-invest could limit their role to setting up those structures and opening them to potential private investors.

3. Ensuring transparent, consistent communication on protocols

The return of tourism demand requires that travelers and tourism-sector employees feel—and are—safe. Although international organizations such as the International Air Transport Association (IATA), and the World Travel & Tourism Council (WTTC) have developed a set of guidelines to serve as a baseline, local regulators are layering additional measures on top. This leads to low levels of harmonization regarding regulations imposed by local governments.

Our surveys of traveler confidence in the United States suggests anxiety remains high, and authorities and destination managers must work to ensure travelers know about, and feel reassured by, protocols put in place for their protection. Our latest survey of traveler sentiment in China suggests a significant gap between how confident travelers would like to feel and how confident they actually feel; actual confidence in safety is much lower than the expected level asked a month before.

One reason for this low level of confidence is confusion over the safety measures that are currently in place. Communication is therefore key to bolstering demand. Experience in Europe indicates that prompt, transparent, consistent communications from public agencies have had a similar impact on traveler demand as CEO announcements have on stock prices. Clear, credible announcements regarding the removal of travel restrictions have already led to increased air-travel searches and bookings. In the week that governments announced the removal of travel bans to a number of European summer destinations, for example, outbound air travel web search volumes recently exceeded precrisis levels by more than 20 percent in some countries.

The case of Greece helps illustrate the importance of clear and consistent communication. Greece was one of the first EU countries to announce the date of, and conditions and protocols for, border reopening. Since that announcement, Greece’s disease incidence has remained steady and there have been no changes to the announced protocols. The result: our joint research with trivago shows that Greece is now among the top five summer destinations for German travelers for the first time. In July and August, Greece will reach inbound airline ticketing levels that are approximately 50 percent of that achieved in the same period last year. This exceeds the rate in most other European summer destinations, including Croatia (35 percent), Portugal (around 30 percent), and Spain (around 40 percent).6 In contrast, some destinations that have had inconsistent communications around the time frame of reopening have shown net cancellations of flights for June and July. Even for the high seasons toward the end of the year, inbound air travel ticketing barely reaches 30 percent of 2019 volumes.

Digital solutions can be an effective tool to bridge communication and to create consistency on protocols between governments and the private sector. In China, the health QR code system, which reflects past travel history and contact with infected people, is being widely used during the reopening stage. Travelers have to show their green, government-issued QR code before entering airports, hotels, and attractions. The code is also required for preflight check-in and, at certain destination airports, after landing.

4. Enabling a digital and analytics transformation within the tourism sector

Data sources and forecasts have shifted, and proliferated, in the crisis. Last year’s demand prediction models are no longer relevant, leaving many destinations struggling to understand how demand will evolve, and therefore how to manage supply. Uncertainty over the speed and shape of the recovery means that segmentation and marketing budgets, historically reassessed every few years, now need to be updated every few months. The tourism sector needs to undergo an analytics transformation to enable the coordination of marketing budgets, sector promotions, and calendars of events, and to ensure that products are marketed to the right population segment at the right time.

Governments have an opportunity to reimagine their roles in providing data infrastructure and capabilities to the tourism sector, and to investigate new and innovative operating models. This was already underway in some destinations before COVID-19. Singapore, for example, made heavy investments in its data and analytics stack over the past decade through the Singapore Tourism Analytics Network (STAN), which provided tourism players with visitor arrival statistics, passenger profiling, spending data, revenue data, and extensive customer-experience surveys. During the COVID-19 pandemic, real-time data on leading travel indicators and “nowcasts” (forecasts for the coming weeks and months) could be invaluable to inform the decisions of both public-sector and private-sector entities.

This analytics transformation will also help to address the digital gap that was evident in tourism even before the crisis.

Digital services are vital for travelers: in 2019, more than 40 percent of US travelers used mobile devices to book their trips.7 In Europe and the United States, as many as 60 percent of travel bookings are digital, and online travel agents can have a market share as high as 50 percent, particularly for smaller independent hotels.8 COVID-19 is likely to accelerate the shift to digital as travelers look for flexibility and booking lead times shorten: more than 90 percent of recent trips in China were booked within seven days of the trip itself. Many tourism businesses have struggled to keep pace with changing consumer preferences around digital.


In particular, many tourism SMEs have not been fully able to integrate new digital capabilities in the way that larger businesses have, with barriers including language issues, and low levels of digital fluency. The commission rates on existing platforms, which range from 10 percent for larger hotel brands to 25 percent for independent hotels, also make it difficult for SMEs to compete in the digital space.

Governments are well-positioned to overcome the digital gap within the sector and to level the playing field for SMEs. The Tourism Exchange Australia (TXA) platform, which was created by the Australian government, is an example of enabling at scale. It acts as a matchmaker, connecting suppliers with distributors and intermediaries to create packages attractive to a specific segment of tourists, then uses tourist engagement to provide further analytical insights to travel intermediaries (Exhibit 3). This mechanism allows online travel agents to diversify their offerings by providing more experiences away from the beaten track, which both adds to Australia’s destination attractiveness, and gives small suppliers better access to customers.

Governments that seize the opportunity to reimagine tourism operations and oversight will be well positioned to steer their national tourism industries safely into—and set them up to thrive within—the next normal.

For corporate travel, a long recovery ahead

Image by Ken Yam

When the COVID-19 pandemic halted travel around the globe, business travelers had to pivot quickly from in-person meetings and events to virtual platforms. As the pandemic continues and travel-industry players look ahead for a rebound, our research shows that the postcrisis return will take years and that business travel will return at a slower pace than leisure travel.

In this article, we examine the role of corporate travel, and how the industry has recovered after previous disruptions; the segments that may return first, and how and why they will differ; and the segments that may be permanently replaced by technology. We also explore travel patterns and event recovery in China, the first major market to resume travel, and see how other major markets on varying timelines of pandemic recovery are faring. Finally, we highlight key actions that could help travel players in an undoubtedly lengthy recovery ahead. In future articles, we will take a deeper look at the timeline and shape of the recovery curve for corporate travel.

Business travel is critical—and volatile

In 2018, business-travel spending exceeded $1.4 trillion—21.4 percent of the global travel and hospitality sector.1 More than half of business travel is concentrated in two economies, China and the United States. Business travel encompasses transient travel and travel for meetings, incentives, conferences, and events (MICE), from large-group offsite gatherings to industry-wide exhibitions.

Corporate travel is significant for airlines and hotels not only in traffic but in profitability. While some travel providers have limited exposure to business travel (ultra-low-cost carriers, for example), it’s a critical driver of profitability for many major carriers. Because corporate travelers are more willing to purchase higher class or refundable fares, they can drive between 55 and 75 percent of profit for top airlines but account for as few as 10 percent of passengers.2 Similarly, some convention-focused hotels (some hotels in Manhattan, for example), depend nearly entirely on corporate travelers for their occupancy, while other resorts in vacation destinations are likely to be unaffected by reduced corporate demand.

Historically, business travel has been more volatile and slower to recover than leisure travel after economic downturns and other disruptions to travel patterns (Exhibit 1). During the 2008–09 global recession, international business travel from the United States declined more than 8 percent, compared with a decline of just 2 percent for international leisure travel from the United States. And although international leisure travel fully recovered in just two years, international business travel didn’t fully rebound to prerecession levels for five years.

Given the volatility of business-travel patterns on top of significant modern technological and connectivity advancements, the economic disruption from the COVID-19 pandemic will have critical implications for the rebound of business travel—and indicates a long road ahead for the sector.

Business travel will eventually return—but in phases

When economies around the world shut down because of the COVID-19 pandemic, most large corporations instituted sweeping restrictions on travel and set high thresholds for exceptions. By April 2020, US airline capacity declined about 70 percent from that in 2019, a decline nearly four times greater than seen after the September 11, 2001, attacks and six times greater than seen after the 2008–09 financial crisis.

Once companies and their employees are prepared to return to the use of airports and hotels, our research indicates that they will do so in phases.3 Global travel managers and directors told us that they are closely monitoring local indicators of public health and government regulations, vendors’ health and safety policies, and employees’ willingness to travel. All three areas can help inform decisions on easing travel-policy restrictions. Several interviewees indicated a need to institute one to three months of buffer time on top of any government guidance to ensure safety.

Travel planners also identified the segments of business travel that are likely to return first, as determined by the length and purpose of a trip and the sector in which travelers work (Exhibit 2). Importantly, even those travel segments likely to return first are on a slow, long timeline for recovery, subject to geographical considerations (such as stabilization of COVID-19 outbreaks and governments’ readiness to open up travel).

Regional and domestic business travel will return first

Looking first at the distance of business travel, regional and domestic trips will likely see a return before international travel does. According to a Global Business Travel Association survey of its member organizations, companies are twice as likely to have halted international travel as have halted domestic travel as of July 2020.4 Within domestic travel, trips that can happen in personal or rental vehicles may replace short regional flights until companies’ comfort with sending employees via airplanes increases.

Travel managers with operations in Asia–Pacific say they have begun to see a slight uptick in domestic travel in countries where outbreaks have stabilized (for example, one organization we interviewed noted that domestic China travel was at 70 to 80 percent of prepandemic levels as of June) but that it’s nowhere near a full return to scale in any region.

International travel will take longer to rebound because of the complexity of government regulations, mandatory quarantines, and the high risk of fast-changing policies. In Asia, to help facilitate economic development, some governments (such as Malaysia and Singapore) are exploring the creation of business-travel corridors under strict protocols that allow exceptions to quarantine measures.

Business travel for in-person sales and client meetings will return first

Examining next the purpose for travel, other than for mission-critical use cases (such as supply-chain-related travel that have continued throughout the pandemic), travel for sales and client-related meetings is most likely to be among the first to return as domestic travel resumes and more travel is permitted, according to those we interviewed.

Sales-focused organizations expressed an urgency to return to face-to-face meetings, with the understanding that doing so will require both parties to be comfortable with the travel required. Whether client offices will reopen to workers and allow guests will be a major indicator of the likelihood of that type of travel returning. Other interviewees expressed a need to keep up with their competitors: once peers begin traveling for sales meetings or pitches, companies will face increased pressure to return to travel to win business among key customers.

The timeline for travel for internal in-person meetings to resume is longer, with higher levels of scrutiny on what is considered business critical and can’t be accommodated with technology. Travel to interact with physical assets—data centers and IT infrastructure—will take priority. But economic constraints across industries, especially those hit hardest by the pandemic’s economic disruption, will decimate internal travel as budgets get disproportionately cut. Travel for internal MICE and other off-site gatherings may not return until well into 2021 or later. And some travel for internal purposes will be permanently replaced by virtual meetings and collaboration.

Business travel for major industry events will most likely be the last to return, as it requires a higher degree of confidence in public safety. Although conferences and trade shows are critical networking opportunities and difficult to conduct virtually, they are also high-risk, given the number of attendees, which can range from several hundred to more than 100,000. When surveyed about what measures will most boost confidence in business-travel bookings for major MICE, US travel planners ranked the availability of a COVID-19 vaccine highest, above stable-public-health indicators and lifted government restrictions (Exhibit 3).

Once events do resume, they will look different. Sales-oriented conferences and trade-show exhibitions may be the first to return to in-person formats. But many events will offer virtual, hybrid, or multilocal models with abbreviated in-person schedules, and they will move from destination cities to regional industry hubs. Venues will need to be modified to allow physical distancing.

In China and South Korea, major domestic automotive and construction trade shows hosted more than 40,000 attendees as early as the end of April 2020, when positive COVID-19 cases were fewer than 50 per day in each country. The Hunan Auto Show, which opened April 30, drew a crowd of around 60,000 attendees and instituted health and safety requirements, including temperature checks, mandatory wearing of masks and gloves, and physical distancing throughout the event.

The hardest-hit sectors will be the last to resume corporate travel

Sector, too, will play a significant role in determining the trajectory of business-travel return. Industries use business travel for different purposes, and their ability to replace it effectively with technology varies. Additionally, while all industries were affected by the COVID-19 crisis, some sectors (such as energy and retail) were hit harder than others and may face more budget constraints, which could slow their pace of travel recovery.

Industrial and production-oriented sectors (such as construction, real estate, machinery and equipment makers, and pharmaceuticals) may lead in the return to business travel. Comparing business-travel dynamics by industry in China prior to the COVID-19 pandemic and during the early travel rebound shows that those sectors rebounded sooner than the rest of the market did (Exhibit 4). Meanwhile, service and knowledge sectors (such as science and technology research) in China lagged behind in returning to business travel but indicated more ability to replace travel with technology.

If China’s still-nascent recovery is indicative of how sectors will return to travel, then other regions will probably see a slower return, based on their industrial mix. Europe and the United States have a higher proportion of business-travel spend concentrated in professional and service sectors and less in the industrial sectors that are showing early resilience in China (Exhibit 5).

How travel providers can prepare

Business travel has a long, multiyear recovery ahead. Travel players that depend on it need to act now and act quickly to weather the storm. Since the global outlook on travel is changing at an unprecedented pace, the critical first step is to develop a deep understanding of when different segments will return. To inform decision making, industry players will need a painstakingly granular, data-backed, flexible perspective on how travel will return across key customers and use cases.

To achieve that perspective, industry leaders should connect directly with their top customers’ relevant decision makers rather than engage through the procurement channels in which they may have stronger relationships today. Decision makers hold critical information that can feed assumptions on the timeline for travel recovery and offer deeper insights on customers’ future needs.

Business-travel players must evaluate the economics and pivot where needed. Airlines, for example, may choose to shift their business-class pricing and marketing to appeal to high-end leisure customers. Hotel operators may choose not to operate all their facilities or amenities or perhaps keep entire properties closed until demand returns. Trade associations and event planners, too, must pivot, bracing for a slow return to travel for in-person events or investing in technology to create high-quality virtual experiences to generate revenue. Alternatively, players may realize that they need to seek new revenue streams to survive. For instance, hospitality companies may choose to repurpose event and meeting spaces as shared-workspace options for companies that have reduced capacity at their own office sites.

As the business-travel sector does recover, its providers must modify operations and policies to accommodate new customer needs. They should overinvest to ensure 100 percent compliance with health and safety measures and seek global accreditations. Proper execution will make or break customer confidence at a time when traveler reluctance is high. Hotels and airlines must innovate the customer experience specifically for the business traveler. Airlines should evaluate loyalty-program benefits (for example, future business travelers might prefer upgrades to empty rows over upgrades to premium seats). Hotels can reevaluate amenity offerings by partnering with digital players in the food-service and fitness spaces.

Last, business-travel players should shift their commercial models to accommodate disruption. With limited resources and a slow recovery, travel companies must ensure lean, efficient models in the near term without sacrificing long-term capabilities. They must identify opportunities for cross-industry collaboration to minimize losses through resource sharing, when permitted by regulators. MICE sales cycles, in particular, are long—from six to 18 months or longer. Hotel chains and event spaces will need to maintain frontline sellers to stimulate long-term demand but may need to centralize or share resources across properties and adjust incentives and targets. Many industry players have announced deep organizational restructuring, which may prompt a resegmentation or reallocation of resources against changing priorities.

The COVID-19 pandemic has presented an unprecedented challenge to the entire business-travel sector. Companies that are agile and keep a pulse on customer needs will emerge as leaders in the postcrisis recovery.

Image by Vivek Doshi
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